Schema Versioning: Data systems often support schema versioning. When changes are made to the schema, a new version is introduced, and the system can handle data with different versions of the schema. This allows for a gradual transition when introducing schema changes.
- Schema Evolution Rules: Data systems can define rules for handling schema changes, such as adding or removing fields. These rules can determine how data with different schema versions is processed and transformed.
- Data Transformation: When data with an older schema version needs to be processed, the system might perform data transformation to bring it in line with the latest schema version before further processing.
- Dynamic Schema Detection: Some systems can dynamically detect changes in incoming data and adjust processing based on the detected schema changes. This requires the ability to analyze incoming data and infer the schema.
- Compatibility Modes: Data processing systems might provide compatibility modes that allow processing of both old and new schema versions simultaneously. This can be useful during transitional periods.
- Error Handling: Robust error handling is crucial when dealing with schema changes. Systems should be able to handle situations where incoming data doesn’t conform to the expected schema, logging errors and providing options for corrective actions.
- Schema Registry: A schema registry can store and manage different versions of schemas, allowing applications to retrieve the appropriate schema version for processing data.
- Backward Compatibility: Whenever possible, changes to the schema should aim for backward compatibility to avoid breaking existing data processing pipelines.
- Metadata Management: Keeping track of metadata related to schema changes, such as timestamps and version information, can aid in auditing and troubleshooting.