Schema-level access control in Snowflake allows you to control user and role access to specific schemas within a database. This fine-grained access control ensures that only authorized users can perform actions (such as creating, altering, or dropping objects) within a particular schema. Schema-level access control is crucial for maintaining data security and enforcing data segregation based on different projects, teams, or applications.
Here’s how schema-level access control works in Snowflake:
1. **Privileges:** Snowflake provides a set of privileges that can be granted at the schema level. These privileges control what users and roles can do within a specific schema. Common schema-level privileges include **`CREATE`**, **`ALTER`**, **`DROP`**, **`USAGE`**, and more.
2. **GRANT and REVOKE Statements:** To grant schema-level privileges, you use the **`GRANT`** statement. To remove privileges, you use the **`REVOKE`** statement. You can grant privileges to both users and roles.
— Grant USAGE privilege on a schema to a role
GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA schema_name TO ROLE role_name;
— Revoke privilege
REVOKE USAGE ON SCHEMA schema_name FROM ROLE role_name;
3. **Default Schema:** Users and roles can have a default schema set. When a user or role logs in, Snowflake will automatically use the default schema for that session. This helps simplify queries by allowing users to reference objects in their default schema without explicitly specifying the schema name.
— Set a user’s default schema
ALTER USER user_name SET DEFAULT_SCHEMA = schema_name;
4. **Using Qualified Names:** When querying objects in a schema, you can use qualified names (schema name + object name) to specify the exact schema from which to retrieve the data or perform actions.
SELECT * FROM schema_name.table_name;
Schema-level access control is an essential feature for managing data security and access permissions in Snowflake. It allows you to enforce data segregation and ensure that users and roles can only interact with specific schemas and objects for which they have been granted appropriate privileges.