To grant access permissions to stages in Snowflake, you use the **`GRANT`** statement along with the appropriate privileges. Stages can be granted privileges to roles or individual users, allowing them to perform specific actions on the stage, such as reading or writing data. Here’s how you can grant access permissions to stages:
1. **GRANT Privileges:**
The common privileges for stages are:
– **`READ`**: Allows reading data from the stage.
– **`WRITE`**: Allows writing data to the stage.
– **`REFERENCE`**: Allows referencing the stage in SQL queries (used in some COPY statements).
The basic syntax for granting privileges to a role or user is:
GRANT privilege ON stage stage_name TO role_or_user;
– **`privilege`**: The privilege you want to grant (e.g., **`READ`**, **`WRITE`**, **`REFERENCE`**).
– **`stage_name`**: The name of the stage you’re granting access to.
– **`role_or_user`**: The role or user to whom you’re granting the privilege.
— Grant READ and WRITE privileges on an external stage to a role
GRANT READ, WRITE ON STAGE my_external_stage TO ROLE my_role;
— Grant REFERENCE privilege on an internal stage to a user
GRANT REFERENCE ON STAGE my_internal_stage TO USER my_user;
Note that you can grant multiple privileges in a single **`GRANT`** statement.
3. **Revoking Privileges:**
To revoke previously granted privileges, you use the **`REVOKE`** statement:
REVOKE privilege ON stage stage_name FROM role_or_user;
– **`privilege`**: The privilege you want to revoke.
– **`stage_name`**: The name of the stage.
– **`role_or_user`**: The role or user from whom you’re revoking the privilege.
— Revoke WRITE privilege on an external stage from a role
REVOKE WRITE ON STAGE my_external_stage FROM ROLE my_role;
Remember to carefully manage and audit access permissions to your stages to ensure that users and roles have the appropriate level of access required for their tasks while maintaining data security and integrity.